DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20200194

Effects of calf thymus extract and L-carnitine on immunity and growth performance of broiler chickens

Mohamed A. Soliman, Hanem El Gendy, Saber El Hanbally

Abstract


Background: Increasing the bird’s wealth and increasing the growth rate are among the goals of increasing the animal wealth so; we studied the effects of L-carnitine and calf thymus extract on growth performance and immunity in broiler chickens.

Methods: Eighty broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each group included twenty chicks. Group 1, was negative control with no treatment of feed or water. Group 2, the regular drinking water was replaced by L-carnitine-infused water (1 gram per liter). Group 3, the regular drinking water was replaced by calf thymus extract- infused water (1 ml per liter). Group 4, the regular drinking water was replaced by both L-carnitine and calf thymus extract- infused water. This treatment was administered from day 1 to day 30 of the cycle. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were assessed. The hemogram, leuckogram, total protein, globulin, albumin, phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and interleukin 2 were measured.  

Results: The hemogram and leuckogram parameters recorded a significant increase in treated groups compared to non treated group. The final body weight for all treatments was nearly the same, but slightly higher with application of L-carnitine. Phagocytic activity, index, TP, globulin and IL2 were significantly increased in treated groups.

Conclusions: Both L-carnitine and thymus extract have significantly improved the general health condition, in addition, calf thymus extract improved not only the general body condition but also act has immunomodulatory effect which require more further studies.


Keywords


Growth performance, Immunomodulatry, L-carnitine, Calf thymus extract

Full Text:

PDF

References


Qureshi A. Selecting the best feeding and watering equipment. Misset World Poultry. 1991;7:17-9.

El-Magd MA, Saleh AA, Abdel-Hamid TM, Saleh RM, Afifi MA. Is really endogenous ghrelin a hunger signal in chickens? Association of GHSR SNPs with increase appetite, growth traits, expression and serum level of GHRL, and GH. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2016;237:131-9.

El Nagar A, Ibrahim A, Case study of the Egyptian poultry sector, Proceedings of the International Poultry Conference, 2007.

Colucci DG, Puig NR, Hernandez-Pando R. Influence of anaesthetic drugs on immune response from inflammation to immunosupression. OA Anaesthetics. 2013;1(3):21.

Karlic H, Lohninger A. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense. Nutrition. 2004;20:709-15.

Edres HA, Taha NM, Mandour AA, Lebda MA. Impact of L-carnitine on bisphenol A-induced kidney damage in rats. Alexandria J Veterinary Sci. 2018;56(1):11-7.

Rebouche JR. Carnitine functions and requirements during the life cycle. Faseb J. 1992;6:3379-86.

Heo KN, Odle J, Lin X, Van Kempen T, Hanin K. Determination of carnitine renal threshold and effect of medium-chain triglycerides on carnitine profiles in new born pigs. J Anim Sci. 2001;14:237-342.

Nouboukpo KE, Tona K, Agbonon AM, Gbeassor JB, Decuypere E. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation in drinking water on layer-type chick juvenile performance. Arch Geflügelk. 2010;74(2):116-20.

Rabie MH, Szilagyi M, Gippert T. Effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation and protein level on performance and degree of meatiness and fatness of broilers. Acta Biol Hung. 1997;48:221-39.

Abouzed TK, Dorghamm DA, Kahilo KA, Elkattawy AM, Nassef E, El-sawy HB. Impact of L-carnitine supplementation on growth of broiler chicken through determination of changes in the expression of CAT2, MYOD and MYF5 genes. Slov. Vet. Res.,2019;56 (22):665-72.

Arslan C. L-Carnitine and its use as a feed additive in poultry feeding a review. Revue Méd Vét. 2006;157(3):134-42.

Franceschi C, Cossarizza A, Troiano L, Salati R, Monti D. Immunological parameters in aging:studies on natural immunomodulating and immunoprotective substances. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10:53-57.

Mast J, Buyse J, Goddeeris B M. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation increases antigen-specific immunoglobulin production in broiler chickens. Br J Nutr. 2000;83:161-6.

Fallah R, Nazari P, Mirzaei E. Effect of different levels of terbutaline and L-carnitine on the growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters and immune system of broiler chickens. Mal J Anim Sci. 2016;19(2):57-69.

Morozov VG, Khavinson VKH. Natural and synthetic thymic peptides as therapeutics for immune dysfunction. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1997;19(9-10):501-5.

Wilson JL. Thymus extracts: An international literature review of clinical studies. Physicians Research and Information, 1999: 1-25.

Haroun HSW. Aging of thymus gland and immune system. MOJ Anat Physiol. 2018;5(3):178-81.

Söder O, Ernström U. Purification to apparent homogeneity of a thymocyte specific growth factor from calf thymus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1984;120(2):420-6.

Colic M, Popovic R, Mrdakovic D, Radeta M, Novakovic J, Pavlovic B, Vucevic D. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory properties of a calf lipid thymus extract and standardization of a method for quantification of its biological activity. Am J Immunol. 2008;3(2):35-44.

Ganie SA, Dar TA, Zargar B, Hamid R, Zargar O, Dar PA, et al. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegussongarica methanol extract. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2014;33(2):131-43.

Naik BMC, Babu H, Mamatha GS. The immunomodulatory role of calf thymus extract on humoral and cell mediated immune response in chicken vaccinated against New Castle disease virus. Int J Poult Sci. 2005;4(8):580-3.

Durrani FR, Sultan A, Marri ML, Chand N, Durrani Z. Effect of wild mint (menthalongifolia) infusion on the overall performance of broiler chicks. Pakistan J Biological Sci. 2007;10:1130-3.

Wilkinson PC. Techniques in clinical immunology. 2nd, Black well scientific publications, London, 1997: 287-288.

Aniagu O, Nwinyi FC, Akumka DD, Ajoku GA, Dzarma S, Izebe KS, et al. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005;4(1):72-8.

Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biomrtrics. 1955;11:1-42.

Boyacioglu M, Turgut H, Akgullu C, Eryilmaz U, Kum C, Onbasili OA. The Effect of L-Carnitine on oxidative stress responses of experimental contrast induced nephropathy in rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2014;76(1):1-8.

Cevik AF, Ceylan N. Effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. 3rd Ulusal Hayvan Besleme Kongresi, Adana; 2005: 391-396.

Moretti S, Alesse E, DI Marzio L, Zazzeroni F, Ruggeri B, Marcellin S, Famularo G, Steinberg S M. Effect of L-carnitine on human immuno deficiency virus-1 infection-associated apoptosis:a pilot study. Blood. 1998;91:3817-3824.

Obmińiska-Mrukowicz B, Szczypka M. Effect of calf thymus extract and zinc supplementation on the cellular response of mice exposed to restraint stress. Pol J Vet Sci. 2005;8(1):1-9.

Jameel YJ. Effect of the content of fish oil, L-carnitine and their combination in diet on immune response and some blood parameters of broilers. Int J Sci Nat. 2014;5:501-4.

Bommer J. Saving erythropoietin by administering L-carnitine. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1999;14(12):2819-21.

Hurot J, Cucherat M, Haugh M, Fouque D. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A systematic Review. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:708-14.

Awad AL, Fahim HN, Beshara MM. Effect of dietary l-carnitine supplementation on productive performance and carcass quality of local duck breeds in summer season, Egypt. Poult Sci. 2016;36(1):11-27.

El-kelawy MI, El nagger AS. Effect of L-carnitine on production performance, blood parameters, lipid metabolism and antioxidative properties of broiler chicks. Egypt. Poult Sci J. 2017;37(III):873-92.

Vassiliadis S, Athanassakis I. A conditionally essential nutrient, L- carnitine, as a primary suspect in endometriosis. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. 2011;95(8):2579-760.

Thangasamy T, Subathra M, Sittadjody S, Jeyakumar P, Joyee AG, Mendoza E, et al. Role of L- carnitine in the modulation of immune response in aged rats. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2008;389:19-24.

Lewandowicz J. Effect of thymus extract TFX (polfa) on hemoglobin level and peripheral blood erythrocyte count. Pol Tyg Lek. 1990;45(23):471-2.

Abdel Fattah AM, Mohamed EM, Mohamed E, Ramadan G. Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus. J Vet Med Sci. 1999;61(7):811-7.

Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Activation of T-cell rosettes in immunodeficient patients by thymosin. Ann NewYork Acad Sci. 1975;249:308-15.

Jablonowska E, Tchorzewski H, Lewkowicz P, Kuydowicz J. Reactive oxygen intermediates and serum antioxidative system in patients with chronic C hepatitis treated with IFN-α and thymus factor X. Arch Immunol Ther Exp. 2005 53:529-33.

Nikitenko AM, Malyzhev VA, Zaika LA. Use of thymus homogenate for enhancing the natural resistance of calves and piglets. Sel's kokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya. 1984;8:31-2.

Mohammed FF, EL-Jakeen J, Esswy GS. Influence of the administration of dried calf thymus or calf thymus extract on performance and immunity of broilers. Vet Med J. 1995;43:321-9.