Study of the impact of gas flaring on communities’ health: methods and participants’ demographics

Nkemdilim Obi, Phillip Bwititi, Ezekiel Nwose


The exploration and production of oil and gas in Nigeria have resulted in gas flaring. This has led to the release of excessive amounts of harmful pollutants possibly leading to ill-health, loss of lives and damage to properties in communities where gas is flared. This has resulted in various studies on the impact of gas flaring on the health of communities. This article described the methodology and demographics of respondents of research in Delta State Nigeria. This research was designed to be a cross-sectional mixed method study. About 500 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to individuals of 18 years and above and the response rate 97.4%. The questionnaire comprised six sections with closed and open-ended questions to ensure objectivity and accuracy of data. Demographic analysis showed that participants comprised 40.1% women, 99.1% reside in 12 oil-producing local government areas (LGA) across Delta State and 69.4% have lived in region for 3-20 years. On occupation, 97.7% work in communities distributed across oil-producing 11 LGAs and 68.2% have worked in the region for 3-20 years. Other participants lived and/or worked in neighbouring communities and states. Participants were well distributed in age groups with 89% consisting of 20-70 years old. Further, respondents comprised 96% who completed secondary or higher and 61.7% classified themselves as middle or upper-class socioeconomic status. The proposal has provision to generate nuanced perspectives of stakeholders. The distribution of respondents indicates satisfactory selection criteria for valid responses to survey questions.


Gas flaring, Demographic analysis, Local government areas

Full Text:



Elvidge C, Ziskin D, Baugh K, Tuttle BT, Ghosh T, Pack DW, et al. A fifteen year record of global natural gas flaring derived from satellite data. Energies. 2009;2(3):595-622.

Seiyaboh E, Izah S. A review of impacts of gas flaring on vegetation and water resources in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Int J Eco Ener Environ. 2017;2(4):48-55.

Ekpoh I, Obia A. The role of gas flaring in the rapid corrosion of zinc roofs in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Environmentalist. 2010;30(4):347-52.

Goundar S. Cloud computing: Understanding the technology before getting “clouded”. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology. Switzerland: Springer; 2012: 217-22.

Sekaran U, Bougie R. Research methods for business: a skill building approach. 7th ed. John Wiley and Sons; 2016.

Aaker D, Kumar V, Day G. Marketing research. 13th ed. John Wiley and Sons; 2008.

Kothari C. Research methodology: Methods and techniques. 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age International; 2004.

Saunders M, Lewis P, Thornhill A. Research methods for business students. 7th ed. New York: Pearson Education; 2016.

Williams C. Research methods. J Bus Econom Res. 2007;5(3).

Project Tropics. Fact sheet: How to conduct research: understanding the characteristics of research design. Available at: https://www. (2019). Accessed on 27 June 2021.

Crawford J, Irving C. Information literacy and lifelong learning: policy issues, the workplace, health and public libraries. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2013.

Lucas-Alfieri D. Marketing the 21st century library: the time is now. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Chandos Publishing; 2015.

Antwi S, Hamza K. Qualitative and quantitative research paradigms in business research: a philosophical reflection. Eur J Busi Manag. 2015;7:217-25.

Leavy P. Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. New York: Guilford Press; 2017.

Clark V, Ivankova N. Mixed methods research: a guide to the field. Sage publications; 2015.

Watkins D, Gioia D. Mixed methods research. USA: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Carson-Stevens A, Hibbert P, Avery A. A cross-sectional mixed methods study protocol to generate learning from patient safety incidents reported from general practice. BMJ Open. 2015;5:009079.

Jha SS, Dasgupta A, Paul B, Ghosh P, Yadav A. Evaluation of village health and nutrition day program in a block of Hooghly District, West Bengal: a mixed-methods approach. Indian J Public Health. 2021;65(2):130-5.

Onwuegbuzie AJ, Collins KMT. A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research Qualit Rep. 2007;12(2):281-316.

Sako E. Public health implications of oil pollution in Koluama. Nigeria: Walden University; 2017.

Delaterre. Fact sheet: Gas flaring in Nigeria. A human rights, environmental and economic monstrosity. Available at: https://www.amisd Accessed on 27 June 2021.

Intechnopen. Fact sheet: Air pollution in the Niger Delta Area: scope, challenges and remedies, 2011. Available at: chapters/18639. Accessed on 27 June 2021.

Onu NC. The oil rich Niger Delta region: a framework for improved performance of the Nigerian regulatory process. AMBIO J Human Environ. 2003;32(4):325-6.

Ijiomah C. Resilience of the Nigerian coastal socio-ecological system: case study of the Niger Delta region. World Maritime Univ Dissert. 2018.

Udotong J, Udoudo U, Udotong I. Effects of oil and gas exploration and production activities on production and management of seafood in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol. 2017;9(3):20-42.

Delta State Government. Population by sex and LGA. Available at: ng/downloads-2/Population%20by%20sex%20and %20LGA.pdf. Accessed on 27 June 2021.

Edino M, Nsofor G, Bombom L. Perceptions and attitudes towards gas flaring in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmentalist. 2010;30(1):67-75.

Nyumba T, Wilson K, Derrick C, Mukherjee N. The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Method Ecol Evolut. 2018;9(1):20-32.

Gill P, Stewart K, Treasure E, Chadwick B. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. Br Dent J. 2008;204:291-5.

Popping R. Analyzing open-ended questions by means of text analysis procedures. Bull Sociol Methodol. 2015;128:23-39.

Roopa S, Rani M. Questionnaire designing for a survey. J Indian Orthodont Soc. 2012;46:273-7.

Kabir S. Basic guidelines for research. an introductory approach for all disciplines. 1st ed. Chittagong: Book Zone Publication; 2016: 168-80.

Ugbomeh B, Atubi A. Preliminary multivariate analysis of the factors of socio-economic development of Nigeria-a case study of Delta State of Nigeria. Afr Res Rev. 2010;4:187-204.

Oguoma VM, Nwose EU, Bwititi PT. Cardiovascular disease risk prevention: preliminary survey of baseline knowledge, attitude and practices of a Nigerian rural community. North Am J Med Sci. 2014;6:466-71.